Hot Ice, Hotter Than Boiling Water

Ice created in nanoseconds by Sandia’s Z machine. ‘Sandia’s huge Z machine, which generates temperatures hotter than the sun, has turned water to ice in nanoseconds. However, don’t expect anything commercial just yet: the ice is hotter than the boiling point of water.
“The three phases of water as we know them — cold ice, room temperature liquid, and hot vapor — are actually only a small part of water’s repertory of states”, says Sandia researcher Daniel Dolan. “Compressing water customarily heats it. But under extreme compression, it is easier for dense water to enter its solid phase [ice] than maintain the more energetic liquid phase [water]”.’

Sandia National Laboratories. ‘Sandia is a national security laboratory involved in a variety of research and development programs to help secure a peaceful and free world through technology.’

Z Machine Homepage, Pulsed Power Facilities at Sandia National Laboratories

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