Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Used in Glaucoma Treatment

UCF Nanoparticle Offers Promise for Treating Glaucoma. ‘A unique nanoparticle made in a laboratory at the University of Central Florida is proving promising as a drug delivery device for treating glaucoma, an eye disease that can cause blindness and affects millions of people worldwide.
The nanoparticle can safely get past the blood-brain barrier making it an effective non-toxic tool for drug delivery, said Sudipta Seal, an engineering professor with appointments in UCF’s Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center and the Nanoscience Technology Center.
The findings will be published in an article appearing in the June 28 issue of the Journal of Physical Chemistry C.
Seal and his colleagues from North Dakota State University note in the article that while barely 1-3 percent of existing glaucoma medicines penetrate into the eye, earlier experiments with nanoparticles have shown not only high penetration rates but also little patient discomfort. The miniscule size of the nanoparticles makes them less abrasive than some of the complex polymers now used in most eye drops.
Seal and his team created a specialized cerium oxide nanoparticle and bound it with a compound that has been shown to block the activity of an enzyme (hCAII) believed to play a central role in causing glaucoma.
The disease involves abnormally high pressure of the fluid inside the eye, which, if left untreated, can result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss. High pressure occurs, in part, because of a buildup of carbon dioxide inside the eye, and the compound blocks the enzyme that produces carbon dioxide.’

Oven cleaner offers glaucoma hope. ‘A substance found in oven cleaner could be used to treat the eye disease glaucoma, US research suggests. Cerium oxide nanoparticles, also commonly used in window cleaner, may help in more effectively delivering an active ingredient into the eye.’

Article: Surface-Derivatized Nanoceria with Human Carbonic Anhydrase II Inhibitors and Fluorophores: A Potential Drug Delivery Device (PDF), Swanand Patil, Serge Reshetnikov, Manas K. Haldar, Sudipta Seal and Sanku Mallik, J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 8437-8442 (2007). Abstract: Human carbonic anhydrase (hCAII) is a metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and is associated with glaucoma (a major cause of blindness). The present study focuses on the use of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) as a potential delivery device for hCAII inhibitors. Carboxybenzenesulfonamide, an inhibitor of the hCAII enzyme, was attached to nanoceria particles using epichlorohydrin as an intermediate linkage. Along with the CA inhibitor, a fluorophore (carboxyfluorescein) was also attached on the nanoparticles to enable the tracking of the nanoparticles in vitro as well as in vivo. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies carried out at each reaction step confirmed the successful derivatization of the nanoceria particles. The attachment of carboxyfluorescein was also confirmed by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Preliminary studies suggest that carboxybenzenesulfonamide-functionalized nanoceria retains its inhibitory potency for hCAII.’

Other applications of Cerium Oxide Nanparticles:
Ceria nanoparticles catalyze reactions for cleaner-fuel future
Could nanoparticles be designed to become potent antioxidants?
Nanoparticles of cerium oxide–application to coatings technologies
Nanoparticles offer hope for frayed nerves
New Catalyst Could Help Diesels Meet NOx Deadlines While Saving Energy
Chance Of A Lifetime. As they steward their products into the market, nanomaterial producers have the opportunity to address environmental, health, and safety concerns from the start.’

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